Bibliotime, ii, 3
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You already recently rated this item. Your rating has been recorded. Write a review Rate this item: 1 2 3 4 5. Preview this item Preview this item. Subjects Bibliotheekwezen.Saggi, Conferenze e Seminari 2. Reproduced with permission of Centro di studi e ricerche di diritto comparator e straniero, diretto da M. This essay considers some implications of the likelihood that change and revision in commercial and contract law to meet new market circumstances will continue at a high rate for a substantial time in the future.Licni oglasi subotica
These processes of revision and reconsideration of the law will involve legal communities around the world in a complex process of lawmaking and will present important challenges that deserve our attention now. When we think of lawmaking, particularly the articulation of a basic body of private law, we are likely to expect it to be an unusual event. Once the structure of such a body of law has been well-framed, the construction need not be repaired for generations, or even centuries.
Like the ancient stones of the glorious buildings of Rome, the great codes of the past appear stable over time, requiring only minor repairs and adjustments from time to time to reflect changes in society and its values. Today I would like to discuss briefly some implications of a legislative process that departs from this historical expectation. The process of revising contract and commercial law is becoming an almost continual response to rapidly and radically changing technology and world markets.
Markets are expanding and changing shape; the technology of trade changes even faster. The political dimensions of this economic change are profound. Europe is becoming a Union, Asia grows at a dizzying pace, the Americas are in the process of forming what may become the largest market of all.
Familiar legal regimes no longer reflect commercial realities. The basic facts from which our discussion must proceed are outside the law. The roots of the rapid change we are experiencing are in [page 1] technological and economic developments that go back years. These developments have increased in momentum and intensity over the past century, but they are not novel in essence.
Changes in communications technology have helped produce economic markets that expand to cross borders, have become regional, and rapidly are becoming global. These inexorable economic facts have been the driving force behind legal changes throughout the world that have harmonized, and often unified, what had been idiosyncratic local and national commercial law.
There is no need to discuss this situation in great detail, for it is familiar to us all. My point is that we lawyers did not decide it would be nice to have a new set of laws. Instead, we are driven into the process of change by the economic and technological forces that shape transactions. The process of change has proven more complex than might have been anticipated even a few years ago.
For example, who could have foreseen the impact of the development of computer-based banking systems?Biobanks play a crucial role in the biological research involving human subjects and provide a fundamental contribution to the rapid growth of scientific endeavour.
This has been well demonstrated, particularly in the past ten years, by the investments made by many countries in order to build such infrastructures and to manage the biological resources they store Kaye, However, in addition to the creation of these new opportunities, the rapid evolution taking place in the biobanking field has created new challenges for researchers due to the huge potential benefits of having access to biological resources.
In order to draw a more detailed picture of how biobanks manage their resources, as well as considering the relationships and even the contradictions between the material and the informational spheres of biological samples, we must take into account the propensity of these institutions to share bio-specimens and data across scientific communities.
The first challenge for biobanks consists in finding an equilibrium between the scientific interests of researchers and the expectations of donors. This can be reached by better exploiting the capabilities and flexibility of current forms of informed consent Kaye, ; Macilotti, ; Colledge et al.
However, the design of an informed consent able to guarantee the sustainability of resource availability does not solve the issues related to the economic interests usually hidden behind the scientific research. This is the case of several web services that sell direct-to-consumer genetic tests.
Through their activities, these companies accumulate large amounts of samples and data that however, remain unavailable to most research communities and groups e.
Finally, even if biobanks embrace the open science principles, many bioethical issues can emerge as sample and data sharing policies are different from country to country. On the other hand, a widespread and efficient sharing of bio-resources from different countries can only be assured through the achievement of a global consensus on the legislation, the standards and the modalities to be followed.
Starting from the preparation of informed consent, the biobank staff must take into account a number of issues when planning the management of the samples and data. They have to meet the requirements imposed by ethics committees, overcome the difficulties in explaining the future uses of existing samples and put the potential donor in a condition that will allow him to make a really informed decision Colledge et al.
Given these premises, it cannot be denied that the progress of human biological research largely depends on the openness of resources and scientific knowledge. In fact, making bio-resources promptly accessible to everyone could favour the common good.
Although this has become a rather common belief, several laboratories are still secretive and continue to withhold samples and data Nelson, ; Cadigan et al. The scientific and academic interests of researchers are important, but they also have responsibilities towards the tax paying public. In fact, the scientific community often regards biobanks and their services as simple source of material for the research and forget that the sample come from human subjects.
The importance of identifying solutions which satisfy the needs of both researchers and citizens is well testified by the engagement of a political economic structure such as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD in supporting open access to public funded research products Arzberger et al.
Previous studies conducted on European and U. Other studies have investigated the opinion of participants and the public about the relationships between sample and data sharing practices and privacy concerns Kaufman et al. However, to date, only a limited number of studies have faced the issue of sample and data sharing behaviour of research biobanks e. The present work aims to investigate sample and data accessibility in research biobanks operating all over the world by means of a questionnaire-based survey.
We observed a low rate of free accessibility for both data and biological samples while the requirements for accessing to the non-open resources were found to be highly heterogeneous. In order to evaluate the reasons behind this heterogeneity, we analysed the relationships between sharing strategies and legal frameworks of the countries in which biobanks operate.
Therefore, we have not taken into account non-human bio-repositories or on-line databases. The online survey was administered to a total of biobanks see Table 1 operating in Europe 95AmericaAsia 25Africa 2 and Oceania We then inspected all these latter results and identified the ones that refer to research biobank sites from which we recorded their contact emails.
I cataloghi elettronici delle biblioteche
This keyword-based procedure was adopted in order to select a random sample of biobanks that could be easily found by anyone researchers and the public. The questionnaire was compiled in order to obtain a detailed picture of the sampling activities, the sample and data accessibility criteria and the legal frameworks for their access.
The final part of the questionnaire was based on a preliminary analysis of twenty biobanks selected following a geographic criterion 9 European, 3 North-American, 2 South-American, 3 Asian and Australian biobanks.
The preliminary analysis was conducted by contacting each biobank asking for explanations regarding their sample and data sharing modalities. Five biobanks responded to our request and with two of them, we also conducted the interview. Furthermore, we analysed their web sites in order to verify the presence of specific information about these aspects.
Finally, we used the collected information to build the questionnaire of the present study. The questionnaire consisted of 21 questions 9 closed and 12 open-ended organized into three sections see File S1. The second section Biological samples investigates the sample collection, the ethical requirements and the legal framework to which the biobank refers to for the management of accessibility to biological samples.
The last section Data includes questions regarding the data collection and the legal framework to which the biobank refers to for the regulation of data accessibility. We launched our survey on 18th April and sent three reminders 28th April, 5th May and 19th May,closing it at the end of May Revista Bahiana de Odontologia. Contemporary Nursing magazine. Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Human Health.Ilaria Alpi
Journal Research in Physiotherapy. Journal of Applied Biosciences. Ma'arif Research Journal. Journal of Kerbala University. Publicaciones en Ciencias y Tecnologia. International Journal of Medical Research Professionals.
Journal of Comorbidity. Krymsky nauchnyi vestnik. Athens Journal of Health.Citadel portfolio manager salary
Journal of Medical and Allied Sciences. International Archives of Health Sciences. Jurnal Gizi dan Pangan. Annals of phytomedicine : An International Journal.
Feast of the Immaculate Conception
Marmara Pharmaceutical Journal. Australian Journal of Emerging Technologies and Society. Australian Journal of Teacher Education. Australian Prescriber. Australian Review of Public Affairs. Australian Slavonic and East European Studies. Australian Studies.Ms1020 smart band
Austrian Studies in Social Anthropology. Carbon : Science and Technology. Autism Research and Treatment. Autoimmune Diseases. Autopsy and Case Reports.The Solemnity of the Immaculate Conception celebrates the solemn celebration of belief in the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary.
It is universally celebrated on December 8, nine months before the feast of the Nativity of Marywhich is celebrated on September 8. The Immaculate Conception is one of the most important Marian feasts in the liturgical calendar of the Roman Catholic Churchand is celebrated worldwide.
By royal decree, it is also designated as the Patroness of Portugal. Sincethe pope in his capacity as Bishop of Rome visits the Column of the Immaculate Conception in Piazza di Spagna to offer expiatory prayers commemorating the solemn event.
The feast was first solemnized as a Holy Day of Obligation  on 6 December under the Papal Bull Commissi Nobis Divinitus   by Pope Clement XI  and is often celebrated with Massparades, fireworks, processions, ethnic foods, and cultural festivities in honor of the Blessed Virgin Mary and is generally considered a Family Dayespecially in many majority- Catholic countries.
The original title of the feast focused more specifically on Saint Anne, being termed sylepsis tes hagias kai theoprometoros Annas" "conception of Saint Anne, the Ancestress of God". However, when the Eastern Church called Mary achrantos "spotless" or "immaculate"this was not defined doctrine.
The majority of Orthodox Christians do not accept the Scholastic definition of Mary's preservation from original sin before her birth as subsequently defined in the Western Church after the Great Schism of It spread from the Byzantine area of Southern Italy to Normandy during the period of Norman dominance over southern Italy.
From there it spread to England, France, Germany, and eventually Rome. InPope Pius V revised the Roman Breviaryand though the Franciscans were allowed to retain the Office and Mass written by Bernardine dei Busti, this office was suppressed for the rest of the Church, and the office of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin was substituted instead, the word "Conception" being substituted for "Nativity.
The festal texts of this period focused more on the action of her conception than on the theological question of her preservation from original sin. A missal published in England in indicates the same Collect for the feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary was used for this feast as well.
The first move towards describing Mary's conception as "immaculate" came in the 11th century. In the 15th century, Pope Sixtus IVwhile promoting the festival, explicitly tolerated both the views of those who promoted it as the Immaculate Conception and those who challenged such a description, a position later endorsed by the Council of Trent.
The proper for the feast of the Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the Medieval Sarum Missal merely addresses the fact of her conception. O God, mercifully hear the supplication of thy servants who are assembled together on the Conception of the Virgin Mother of God, may at her intercession be delivered by Thee from dangers which beset us.
InPius IX issued the Apostolic constitution Ineffabilis Deus : "The most Blessed Virgin Mary, in the first instant of her conception, by a singular grace and privilege granted by almighty God, in view of the merits of Jesus Christ, the saviour of the human race, was preserved free from all stain of original sin.
According to the Universal Norms on the Liturgical Year and the Calendar5, when the solemnity of the Immaculate Conception, which always occurs within Adventfalls on a Sunday, it is transferred to the following Monday.
The solemnity is an official public holiday in the following sovereign countries and territories:.
The Holy See, through the Sacred Congregation of Rites grants the express privilege to use blue or cerulean vestments on this day for the Spanish crown and its former territories. Numerous pontiffs have expressed the same sentiment via a Pontifical decree, namely the following:. Several petitions were submitted to the Holy See to use blue or violet vestments for other Marian feasts of the Blessed Virgin Mary, which is considered an ecclesiastical abuse by the Sacred Congregation of Rites, and ruled against it on 23 February The situation in other constituent churches of the Anglican Communion is similar, i.
Anne of the Most Holy Theotokos. While the Orthodox believe that the Virgin Mary was, from her conception, filled with every grace of the Holy Spiritin view of her calling as the Mother of Godthey do not teach that she was conceived without original sin as their understanding and terminology of the doctrine of original sin differs from the Roman Catholic articulation.
The Orthodox feast is not a perfect nine months before the feast of the Nativity of the Theotokos September 8 as it is in the West, but a day later. This feast is not ranked among the Great Feasts of the church year, but is a lesser-ranking feast Polyeleos. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Eve of the Immaculate Conception.We use technical cookies to analyse our traffic on the Ca' Foscari University websites. We also use third-party cookies to personalize different content and to provide some features of the University's institutional social media.Tcs joining date for 2019 batch
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Dall'inventore della rete il progetto di una comunicazione democratica, interattiva e intercreativa. Milano, Feltrinelli, Prepared for the Library of Congress. Final report, March 17 Volume 1 of The Information Age. The rise of Library 2.
A white paper. Washington, D. Dalle biblioteche all'architettura delle informazioni per il Web, Milano, Hops Tecniche nuove, Technology, tradition, and the quest for balance. Chicago, American Library Association, Traduzione italiana: La biblioteca come valore. GULL, C.
Chaplin, A. Occasional Paper n. Dion Hinchcliffe's Web 2. Munchen, K. Saur, Traduzione italiana: Requisiti funzionali per record bibliografici : rapporto conclusivo, IFLA Study group on the functional requirements for bibliographic records, approvato dallo Standing committee della IFLA section on cataloguing, edizione italiana a cura dell'Istituto centrale per il catalogo unico delle biblioteche italiane e per le informazioni bibliografiche, Roma, ICCU,
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